Part 2 of 2
It pleases the Machiavelli and Cesare Borgia in us to observe that the Zanj never lost sight of the 'conspiratorial' nature of their adventure. Even in the beginning, although lacking in weapons, they displayed great organizational skills. They were ice-cool. Having devised a secret plan, Ali Razi informed his fellow rebels of the details by code. Accordingly each slave was to assassinate on the hour of the same day his (and most were male) master and thus take over his house, wealth and land. The plan worked so well that in no time at all most of present day Iraq, Bahrain and parts of Iran came under their rule.
The arrogance of the ruling class can be turned to their disadvantage. Throughout classical antiquity slaves were referred to as "talking masks" or "animated instrument". The rapid victories of the Abbasi Dynasty had instilled the same sense of haughtiness in the Muslim elite. Their racism, as we will see below, became self-defeating as the slaves were underestimated time and again by their ex-masters.
The racism of the ruling Muslim elite ran deep and became worse as the empire became ever more dependent on slave labour. For instance, the famous Muslim historian, al-Mas'udi, basing himself on the authority of Galen states the ten qualities of Sudanese, thusly: "Kinky hair, thin eyebrows, broad noses, thick lips, sharp teeth, malodorous skin, dark pupils, clefty hands and feet, elongated penises and excessive merriment". Further on he quotes Galen approvingly: "surely the dark complexion person (al-aswad) is overwhelmed by merriment due to the imperfection (fasad) of his brain; therefore, his intellect is weak" (see Akbar Muhammad, Slaves and Slavery in Muslim Africa, vol. I, p 68).
Elsewhere, al-Mas'udi relates the cause of blackness to the curse of God based on the Old Testament story of Ham/Canaan, "stricken in his semen because of his sexual relation with his wife in the Ark" (see Ephraim Isaacs in the same book for a discussion of whether it was the curse of Ham or Canaan). Although rabbinical ideologues believed in the idea of moral chosenness as evident in the racialism inherent in so much of their writings, it was left to Islam to turn this notion of desired separateness into outright racism, the belief in the biological/cultural superiority of one's own race over others. After all, Islam, unlike ancient Jewry, had an empire to run!
Ibn Qutayba thought blacks were "ugly and misshapen, because they live in a hot country. The heat overcooks them in the womb and curls their hair". Even the genius of Ibn Khaldun was tainted by prejudice against blacks: "Therefore, the Negro nations are, as a rule, submissive to slavery because [Negroes] have little [that is essentially] human and have attributes that are quite similar to those of dumb animals..."
"Do not repeat the tactics which have gained you one victory, but let your methods be regulated by the infinite variety of circumstances".
- Sun Tzu, The Art of War
Against such a tirade of bigoted intolerance some black writers began to deliver counter-jabs. Perhaps one of the first expressions of "Black is beautiful" came in the shape of a treatise written by the satirist Jahiz of Basra (ca. 776-869), entitled The Boast of Blacks Against Whites, where he purports to defend the Zanj against their detractors. But these intellectual efforts remained woefully limited in scope. For example, the satirist and court jester, Abu Dulama (d. ca. 776), a black Arab poet, was pressurized into self-derogatory comic routines for the amusement of his Abbasi masters. Lewis (Race and Color in Islam, p 17) even suggests that Jahiz, being a humorist, was not "wholly serious" in his defence of Africans despite being probably of African descent himself. He was certainly more Arab than the Arabs on one occasion when he attacks the Zanj with venom: "We know that the Zanj were the least intelligent and the least discerning of mankind, and the least capable of understanding the consequences of actions..." As ever misconceptions were best fought during the struggles of the slaves themselves.
TACTICS AND STRATEGY
Ansaf-pour has estimated that the Zanj fought the forces of the empire on 156 separate occasions during their 15-year campaign. Most of the battles waged in the first six years were won through a mixture of bravery and surprise guerrilla tactics.
In their seventh engagement, for instance, they out-smarted the Khalifeh's generals by attacking two villages simultaneously. They acted ruthlessly when required (executing thousands for siding with the khalifeh) and magnanimously when it made sense (releasing captured soldiers as part of their propaganda war against the Empire).
"Be subtle! Be subtle! And use your spies for every kind of business".
- Sun Tzu, The Art of War
Even a movement as non-compromising as the Zanj could not avoid occasional contact with class enemies. Merchants who sold them provisions when stocks were low, soldiers who defected to their side only to prove treacherous and most damaging of all pseudo-rebels who turned coat at the earliest opportunity.
The prime example of this is Ya'ghub, a Persian who as a (muslim) nationalist fought the invading (muslim) Arab army, 'liberating' vast junks of Iran. However, the egalitarian principles of the Zanj proved anathema to him and when the crunch came he sided with the Khalifeh against the slaves, delivering a body blow from which the Zanj never recovered. The historical lessons of the Paris Commune (that the bosses are always prepared to suspend faction fights and unite against the proletariat) came as no surprise to the Middle Eastern proletariat. Ya'ghub 'the cunt' taught us that particular lesson long ago!
All this forced the Zanj to develop their intelligence-gathering network far and wide. Local and converted spies were employed to discover the enemy plans. Ali Razi would order the snatching of slaves from muslim dominated areas who were then questioned about their masters' intentions, and released unharmed having in most cases become converted rebels. And with these messengers the Zanj preached their egalitarian doctrine to all those who would listen.
The different strands in their movement complemented each other to produce an all-pervasive assault against private property. The Africans and the tribal Arabs contributed to the communist trend by attempting to build non-hierarchical communes similar to the tribes they remembered from before slavery and the Persians under the influence of Mazdaki ideology emphasized the possession of all things in common.
The Zanj rebellion is one of the few slave revolts where women took an active part in the struggle. It is worth noting that women and children were particularly in demand in Islamic lands and hence predominated in the slave trade.
"Humble words and increased preparations are signs that the enemy is about to advance. Violent language and driving forward as if to attack are signs that he will retreat."
- Sun Tzu, The Art of War
THE EMPIRE STRIKES BACK!
The Islamic Empire which was born a 'feudal' entity, had after three centuries of growth acquired millions of slaves working in mines, factories, marshlands, agriculture and household duties. This had created a parallel, though subordinate, mode of slave production alongside 'feudalism'. A sign that there was a surplus of slaves can be seen in their use as court entertainers. Eunuchs, virgins and even transvestites were employed for the pleasure of the Muslim elite. In slave markets, known as spectacles, the price of slaves could suddenly fall after a military victory. Anticipating 20th century consumerism, one smart trader decided to give away a free extra slave for every 40 Turkish slaves bought, in order to boost flagging sales!
The first slave traders' manual (vade mecum), which appeared in the 10th century, concentrated on the physiological and physiognomic features of the slaves and could be viewed as a forerunner of the science of phrenology. Later studies analyzed ethnological aspects also. Ibn Buttan who wrote a complete study of the subject suggested an elaborate technical division of labour for slaves.
All this knowledge regarding its victim came in handy when the ruling class finally got its act together and began to wear down the Zanj militarily while sowing the seeds of distrust amongst them. Cities controlled by the Zanj began to fall to the superior forces of the khalifeh. Mokhtarieh, their capital and flagship, was besieged for two year. Finally, in a surprise and daring counter-attack, Razi and some of his closest associates fought their way out of the Muslim's stranglehold to fight one last battle. But the game was up and they knew it. When the end came, Razi's severed head was paraded throughout the region to convince the remaining free slaves that resistance was futile. Yet, thousands refused to believe and fought on in small enclaves in the hope of a miracle that never materialized.
"Hence the saying: If you know the enemy and know yourself, you need not fear the result of a hundred battles. If you know the enemy but not yourself, for every victory gained you will suffer a defeat. If you know neither the enemy nor yourself, you will succumb in every battle."
- Sun Tzu, The Art of War
A bourgeois reactionary once explained the failure of the slaves' revolts in the Roman Empire thusly: " ... the uprisings were unsuccessful because even in the most revolutionary crisis of history the slaves were always the tools of the ruling classes" (Lenin quoted in W Z Rubinsohn, Spartacus' Uprising and Soviet Historical Writing). Thankfully no one bothered to tell Lenin about the Zanj revolt. Ironically Stalin who had based his thesis of the division of human history into 5 successive periods on Lenin, came to exactly the opposite conclusion: "...the great slave-uprisings of the declining Roman Republic annihilated the slave-owner class and the slave-owner society" (J. V. Stalin, vol 13, p 239, Speech to the First All Soviet Congress of Kolcholz-peasants). Had Stalin passed the same judgment on the Zanj rebellion he would still be wrong but at least on safer ground! As it is both he and Lenin set back any serious analysis of class struggle in the ancient world through their ill-informed and reactionary rhetoric. Middle Eastern scholars are to this day grappling with the adverse repercussions of their rants.
What we can say with a reasonable amount of certainty is that there were certain inherent weaknesses in the Zanj movement which went unnoticed while they were winning battles and attracting new members, but as soon as they stalled on the military front, the flaws crystallized as insoluble obstacles.
Following Hannibal's famous victory at Cannae, Marharbal, his cavalry commander urged him to march on Rome. When Hannibal refused Marharbal retorted: "The gods have taught you how to win victories, Hannibal, but not how to use them". The same criticism can be levelled at the Zanj. Having fought the forces of Islam to a standstill, they failed to take advantage. They lacked a master plan. Gradually with the new wealth accumulating in their coffers they began to imitate their old masters. A rigid hierarchical structure and an elitist attitude towards the rank and file created disillusionment. Some of the top generals in the Zanj army became indistinguishable from the hated landlords. Ali Razi who clearly understood the alienation all this created, seemed powerless to do anything about it.
The same problem resurfaced again in 17th century maroon communities of the Caribbean. "The long survival of Palmores, for example, meant that the monarchy of King Ganga Zumba assumed truly dynastic form.... Perhaps the most bizarre development in this respect was the appearance of Indian leaders of resistance in Brazil... who, under the impact of Portuguese Catholicism, styled themselves popes" (K R Bradley, Slavery and Rebellion in the Roman World, p 10-11).
The heterogeneity of the slaves, which was previously a source of strength, now became a source of friction. Household slaves and eunuchs began arguing whilst Razi and his generals fell out over tactics. Some would argue that even in defeat the Zanj were victorious, in the sense that they (and similar other contemporaneous revolts) forced the Islamic ruling class to dispense with slavery as an auxiliary mode of production to 'feudalism'. The slaves' workload was lessened and they were gradually transformed into peasants and serfs, some being 'freed' into wage-slavery. Accordingly the Zanj inaugurated a social revolution but not the social revolution. But perhaps their greatest mistake as with many proletarians before and after them was to ignore the wisdom of the ancient axiom:
"In war, then, let your great object be victory, not lengthy campaigns".
- Sun Tzu, The Art of War