Qaddafi has also made a number of overtures to gain Western acceptance, particularly after the demise of the USSR. In fact as early as 1987, Qaddafi proposed an easing of relations between the US and Libya. In 1993, after over 30 years of resisting the demands and pressures from the West, Qaddafi opened the Libyan economy to Western capital, implemented a series of liberal economic reforms, and granted profitable investment deals to major Western oil companies. In 1994, Gaddafi agreed to pay reparation to the families of the Lockerbie bombing. With Mandela negotiating on Qaddafi’s behalf, Mandela convinced Qaddafi to hand over the three Libyans accused of the bombing to the Scottish Court in the Netherlands, where they were tried in 1999. The Libyan government insisted it played no part in the bombing but was "paying for peace" with the West.i In the late 1990’s, after an assassination attempt by the Libyan Islamic Fighting Group, Qaddafi began giving counter-terrorism intelligence to MI6 and the CIA. Intelligence ties between Qaddafi's regime and the US and the UK continued under the Bush administration. In 1999, he offered to dismantle his weapons of mass destruction (WMD) program. He even went on American television where he denounced the 9-11 attacks. In 2003, following the invasion of Iraq, Qaddafi again admitted to having an active WMD program, and that he would dismantle it.
But despite these concessions, to the West, Qaddafi remained un-bought and un-bossed. For example, he did not join any US-NATO-sponsored military alliances in the area. Libya did not participated in NATO's Operation Active Endeavor naval patrols and exercises in the Mediterranean Sea. Additionally, Libya is not a member of NATO's Mediterranean Dialogue military partnership, which includes Israel, Jordan, Egypt, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco and Mauritania. Qaddafi further earned the wrath of the West for establishing extensive trade and investment deals with BRIC countries (Brazil, Russia, India and China), especially with China. According to China’s Ministry of Commerce, 50 Libyan projects have been contracted, in excess of $18 billion. But most disturbing for the US was Qaddafi position on AFRICOM. In 2007, the US established a new command and control center for the military subjugation of the Afrika, called AFRICOM. When AFRICOM was formed some 49 Afrikan nations signed on to the US military charter, except Libya. Still, no Afrikan nation wanted to host it—in fact until very recently, Afrika was the only continent without a US military base. Libya once housed a British installation but when Qaddafi took over he closed it and expelled all foreign military personnel. More recently, Qaddafi had been actively working to disrupt AFRICOM. Afrikan governments that were offered money by the US to host an AFRICOM installation, Qaddafi doubled the monetary offer if they refused it.ii Clearly, Qaddafi was no Western puppet and his unpredictability presented a major problem for the West.