This basic dualistic or dichotomous thinking continues in Western philosophies and is the basis of other dichotomies such as those between spirit (God) and matter (the world), creation and evolution, science and religion, or the divine aspects and the animal aspects of the human being. These dichotomies exists in each philosophical system and in most of the systems one aspect dominates, or is more important than the other. Plato’s reason or soul of the world represents the divine that must control the appetite, symbol of the body of the world. In Christianity, the spirit must make sure not to succumb to flesh, which is considered weak and easily susceptible to temptation. Marxism’s dialectical materialism juxtaposes the material or physical over the metaphysical or religious, which he considered the “opiate of the people.” His economic determinism postulates the priority of economic systems over religious, social, and political systems. Freud, like Plato argues for balance, but he too stresses psychosexual over psychosocial development. In addition, his Life instinct (Eros) and Death instinct (Thanatos) hints of dualism, and especially his id-superego paradigm. (Freud’s notions of human development and libido in a superficial way align him more closely with Afrikan thought).
Several theories involve (some type of) determinism, which is usually in opposition to freedom. Determinism itself is a philosophy that holds pre-existing conditions invariably determines all human volitions. It also implies existence is static and linear. Western theories have variously employed behavioral, psychological, and economic determinism. Even the Christian notion of God’s design or the last judgement speaks of determinism. Unfortunately since most of Western theories/philosophies were based on conflict, many sought escape in the hope of a better future, or a futuristic optimism (called progress, a materialist notion). A few Afrikan and Afrikan American scholars, particularly Cheikh Anta Diop, Marimba Ani, and Jacob Carruthers in the deconstruction of Western racist scholarship, have pointed out many cultural assumptions of the Western worldview. Western thought is based on a pessimistic outlook; bipolarity or dualism; an antagonism toward Nature; a warrior mentality. All of the above philosophies possess one or more of these qualities. And apart from Christianity and Plato’s metaphysics, both of which are indebted to Afrika, the former to Kemetic astro-mythology (Heru the KRST), and the latter, remnants of Pre-Socratic philosophy derived from Kemet, all of the other philosophies are based on materialism, a Greek concept that developed from the doctrines of Thales, Anaximander, Anaximenes, and Heraclitus.
As a final point, Western theories and philosophies leaves the individual confounded, not knowing which path to choose to proceed with his or her life. They relegate any notion of truth to one’s opinion and this is a Greek gift, from Xenophanes. The various philosophies and their schools of thought contribute to the confusion over the nature of the human being offering no clear answers. For all the scientific proofs and empirical data amassed by the various theorists and philosophers, the individual in Western civilization is left confused. The Afrikan on the other hand, provides a definite development and progression for the human being, offering purpose, meaning, and direction, supplemented with knowledge. It all starts with their cosmologies, which are based on the ideas of unity and harmony.