For many years I struggled with this holiday. It is a non-religious celebration so it's not like I could object to it the way I do Christianity and Easter. My objection was political-cultural. It was after reading Dr. Ishakamusa Barashango's Afrikan People and European Holidays: A Mental Genocide. According to the author:
"Thanksgiving Day literally is a holiday celebrating the beginnings of the almost total extermination of an entire race of people, commonly called "Indians" and the enslavement, continued oppression and genocide of the Afrikan, by European settlers....For over 100 years now Black folks in the United States have joined with the descendants of the same European murder[er]s who enslaved them and systematically all but destroyed the Amer-Indian, in feasting and giving thanks to God for the "opportunity" to live in one of the most racist, imperialist, and oppressive countries on earth....Black People celebrating Thanksgiving Day is like the Americans celebrating the bombing of Pearl Harbor, or the so-called Jews celebrating the rise of the Third Reich, or the Palestinians celebrating the intrusion of the settler colony of Zionist Israel, or moreover the millions of Zulu descendants who are being murdered by the thousands each day, celebrating the establishment of the Union of South Africa..."
Damn, he was talking about me. And since members of my family have always acknowledge a native American heritage, in honor of them too, I wasn't supposed to be celebrating Thanksgiving. So my brother and I, both cultural nationalist began to boycott the day. We would either fast of just avoid the family on that day. Later some of us began celebrating Umoja Karamu, meaning unity feast as an alternative to "Turkey Day." The unity feast was designed to be a ritual of solidarity for the Afrikan family. It was created by Edward Simms, Jr. in 1971 as a practiced in The Temple of the Black Messiah. It was held on the fourth Sunday in November, 3 days after Thanksgiving.
In addition, to this Thanksgiving alternative, I initiated the celebration of my parent's wedding anniversary as another, and our nuclear family's real Thanksgiving Day. Sadly after these various attempts to replace Thanksgiving, I finally just gave in. I was unable to turn the tide within my family (not enough cultural nationalists). In the end, the solidarity of my family and my love for my family brought me back to the family on that last Thursday in November.
The celebration is one of family, and though it has its origins in all that Dr Barashango documents, it means something else to Afrikan people. We do not connect it to the Pilgrims or native Americans--we connect it to survival and family, and it is an amazing time for fellowship and in-gathering.
Nevertheless, I will still take this opportunity to say a little more about the Umoja Karamu. First and foremost the celebration is an expression of Kuumba, and Kujichugulia. Its purpose is to instill a sense of unity and appreciation of our Afrikan heritage into our families. This is done through prayers to the traditional deities of Afrika, libations to honor our ancestors, historical readings and race-affirming films all of which culminates in a healthy, nutritious feast. According to its founder, Umoja Karamu injects new meaning and solidarity into the Black Family through ceremony and symbol. It is unique in that it bridges the gap between diverse religious persuasions through a ritual which is easily understood and appreciated by all the participants. Moreover, it draws on the collective Black experience with which most Black Folks are familiar.”
The Umoja Karamu celebration is based on five major epochs in the lives of Afrikans in America and each represented by a distinct color. The feast should include foods representing the color of each epoch.The prayers, libations, historical readings and films should also center around these events:
1st Epoch – Afrikans prior to the invasions and influence of Europeans and Arabs. The color Black, is used to delineate the unity of the Afrakan people.
2nd Epoch – Captivity of Afrikans during which the Maafa occurs. The color white symbolizes the adversary and their role in the attempted destruction of Afrikan culture.
3rd Epoch – Self Emancipation. The fight against forced labor and captivity in the United States of America through revolts, Civil Rights and the Black Power movements. The color red is used to represent those who lived and died in service of freeing captive Afrikans.
4th Epoch – National Liberation. The fight for decolonization of Afrakan countries the formation of the Organization for Afrikan Unity and the Diasporic Afrikan liberation movements. The chosen color is green, symbolic of land and all that comes from it.
5th Epoch – The Future of Afrika and Afrikans. An Afrikan centered perspectives for the future. The color gold is chosen for the future is a most valuable asset.
The letter was a fraud but the divide and rule techniques are real!!!
Full Text of the alleged Willie Lynch Speech, 1712:
DEATH OF THE WILLIE LYNCH SPEECH (Part I)
by Prof. Manu Ampim
Since 1995 there has been much attention given to a speech claimed to be delivered by a “William Lynch” in 1712. This speech has been promoted widely throughout African American and Black British circles. It is re-printed on numerous websites, discussed in chat rooms, forwarded as a “did you know” email to friends and family members, assigned as required readings in college and high school courses, promoted at conferences, and there are several books published with the title of “Willie Lynch.” In addition, new terminology called the “Willie Lynch Syndrome” has been devised to explain the psychological problems and the disunity among Black people.
Further, it is naively assumed by a large number of Willie Lynch believers that this single and isolated speech, allegedly given almost 300 years ago, completely explains the internal problems and divisions within the African American community. They assume that the “Willie Lynch Syndrome” explains Black disunity and the psychological trauma of slavery. While some have questioned and even dismissed this speech from the outset, it is fair to say that most African Americans who are aware of the speech have not questioned its authenticity, and assume it to be a legitimate and very crucial historical document which explains what has happened to African Americans.
However, when we examine the details of the “Willie Lynch Speech” and its assumed influence, then it becomes clear that the belief in its authenticity and widespread adoption during the slavery era is nothing more than a modern myth. In this brief examination, I will show that the only known “William Lynch” was born three decades after the alleged speech, that the only known “William Lynch” did not own a plantation in the West Indies, that the “speech” was not mentioned by anyone in the 18th or 19th centuries, and that the “speech” itself clearly indicates that it was composed in the late 20th century.
SILENCE ON LYNCH SPEECH
The “Willie Lynch Speech” is not mentioned by any 18th or 19th century slavemasters or anti-slavery activists. There is a large body of written materials from the slavery era, yet there is not one reference to a William Lynch speech given in 1712. This is very curious because both free and enslaved African Americans wrote and spoke about the tactics and practices of white slavemasters. Frederick Douglass, Nat Turner, Olaudah Equino, David Walker, Maria Stewart, Martin Delaney, Henry Highland Garnet, Richard Allen, Absolom Jones, Frances Harper, William Wells Brown, and Robert Purvis were African Americans who initiated various efforts to rise up against the slave system, yet none cited the alleged Lynch speech. Also, there is not a single reference to the Lynch speech by any white abolitionists, including John Brown, William Lloyd Garrison, and Wendell Phillips. Similarly, there has been no evidence found of slavemasters or pro-slavery advocates referring to (not to mention utilizing) the specific divide and rule information given in the Lynch speech.
Likewise, none of the most credible historians on the enslavement of African Americans have ever mentioned the Lynch speech in any of their writings. A reference to the Lynch speech and its alleged divide and rule tactics are completely missing in the works of Benjamin Quarles, John Hope Franklin, John Henrik Clarke, William E.B. Du Bois, Herbert Aptheker, Kenneth Stampp, John Blassingame, Rosalyn Terborg-Penn, Darlene Clark-Hine, and Lerone Bennett. These authors have studied the details and dynamics of Black social life and relations during slavery, as well as the “machinery of control” by the slavemasters, yet none made a single reference to a Lynch speech.
Since the Willie Lynch speech was not mentioned by any slavemasters, pro-slavery advocates, abolitionists, or historians studying the slavery era, the question of course is when did it appear?
FIRST REFERENCE TO LYNCH SPEECH
The first reference to the Willie Lynch speech was in a late 1993 on-line listing of sources, posted by Anne Taylor, who was then the reference librarian at the University of Missouri at St. Louis (UMSL). She posted ten sources to the UMSL library database and the Lynch speech was the last item in the listing. Taylor in her 1995 email exchanges with the late Dr. William Piersen (Professor of History, Fisk University) and others interested in the origin of the Lynch speech indicated that she keep the source from where she received the speech anonymous upon request, because he was unable to establish the authenticity of the document. On October 31, 1995, Taylor wrote:
“Enough butt-covering, now it’s time to talk about where I got it. The publisher who gave me this [speech] wanted to remain anonymous…because he couldn’t trace it, either, and until now I’ve honored his wishes. It was printed in a local, widely-distributed, free publication called The St. Louis Black Pages, 9th anniversary edition, 1994*, page 8.”
[*Taylor notes: “At risk of talking down to you, it’s not unusual for printed materials to be ‘post-dated’ – the 1994 edition came out in 1993].
The Lynch speech was distributed in the Black community in 1993 and 1994, and in fact I came across it during this time period, but as an historian trained in Africana Studies and primary research I never took it serious. I simply read it and put it in a file somewhere.
However, the Lynch speech was popularized at the Million Man March (held in Washington, DC) on October 16, 1995, when it was referred to by Min. Louis Farrakhan. He stated:
We, as a people who have been fractured, divided and destroyed because of our division, now must move toward a perfect union. Let's look at a speech, delivered by a white slave holder on the banks of the James River in 1712... Listen to what he said. He said, 'In my bag, I have a foolproof method of controlling Black slaves. I guarantee everyone of you, if installed correctly, it will control the slaves for at least 300 years’…So spoke Willie Lynch 283 years ago.”
The 1995 Million Man March was broadcast live on C-Span television and thus millions of people throughout the U.S. and the world heard about the alleged Willie Lynch speech for the first time. Now, ten years later, the speech has become extremely popular, although many historians and critical thinkers questioned this strange and unique document from the outset.
An excerpt from The Africans: A Triple Heritage by Ali A. Mazrui
Yet strictly by the measurement of technology there seems to be little doubt that African societies which developed into states were often significantly more advanced in the use of sophisticated tools than African societies which were still primarily based on a pastoral or herding way of life. Some of the African states evolved into cultures of monuments, brick and mortar civilisations. At the pyramids of the Nile or the castles in Ethiopia, or at the awesome ruins of Great Zimbabwe, or at the remains of Gedi in Kenya, one is visually reminded of this monumental side of African history, the history of kingdoms and dynastic empires which also believed in using stone and brick to erect durable testimony to their life-styles. This is the theme of gloriana in African history.
But alongside these African societies of centralised complexity and gloriana have lived people who are either still hunters and gatherers primarily or, at a more advanced state of technology, have become societies which deal with domesticated animals. The hunters and gatherers include the Khoisan ("Bushmen") of the Kalahari and, with even more complex skills, the BaMbuti ("Pygmies") of Zaire. The pastoral and herding communities have included, as we indicated, the Somali and the Masai, and also a substantial section of the Fulani who are spread over much of west Africa (not to be confused with the Hausa-Fulani), the Tuareg of the southern Sahara and other pastoralists on the march. For centuries all these so-called "tribes without rulers," illustrating civilisations of subtle simplicity rather than complex structures, have co-existed alongside the more elaborate states and monumental gloriana. Even the term "simplicity" underestimates the underlying intricacies of these pastoral and hunting societies, but there is little doubt that their technology has been significantly less developed than the technology either achieved indigenously or imported by African states and the makers of Africa's monumental history.
The massive cultural arrogance of Europeans was later to influence the indigenous personality of the continent, and create at times schizophrenia among the Westernised Africans. Defending themselves against European contempt, one school of African thought emphasised that Africa before the European had had its own complex civilisations of the kind that Europeans regarded as valid and important civilisations which produced great kings, impressive empires and elaborate technological skills. This particular school of African thought looked especially to ancient Egypt as an African civilisation, and proceeded to emphasise Egypt's contribution to the cultures and innovations of ancient Greece.
We may call this school of African assertion a school of romantic gloriana. It seeks to emphasise the glorious moments in Africa's history defined in part by European measurements of skill and performance, including the measurements of material monuments.
In contrast to this tradition of romantic gloriana is what might be called romantic primitivism. In this the idea is not to emphasise past grandeur, but to validate simplicity and non-technical traditions, Romantic primitivism does not counter European cultural arrogance by asserting civilisations comparable to that of ancient Greece. On the contrary, this school takes pride in precisely those traditions which European arrogance would seem to despise.
The above illustrated the madness of America. Whereas the white suspects had bodies (committed murders), they were apprehended alive; while the black victims were murdered but had not even committed a crime. The media has a lot to do with it as well. Look the various headlines below and see how they present both suspect and victim.
That's how the Lubbock Avalanche-Journal chose to present the story of Amy Bishop, a former college professor who eventually pleaded guilty to killing three colleagues and wounding three others at a faculty meeting in 2010.
And that's the headline AL.com ran about the shooting death of a 25-year-old black man in Alabama earlier this year.
This is how the Staten Island Advance covered the case of Eric Bellucci, a mentally ill New York man who allegedly killed his parents.
Meanwhile, NBC News ran this headline during ongoing coverage of the Trayvon Martin killing.
This Fox News headline quoted friends shocked that 15-year-old Jared Michael Padgett had entered his high school heavily armed and killed a classmate, injured a teacher and took his own life.
But in Florida, this headline in the Ledger focused on a police account that made the death of a black 19-year-old seem somehow expected, or at least unsurprising.
In the wake of the mass shooting in Santa Barbara, California, earlier this year, the Whittier Daily News offered a headline showing one man's disbelief that Elliot Rodger could have committed such a crime.
Earlier this month, the New York Daily News ran this headline, carrying comments by the Ohio attorney general that appeared to defend police after killing a black man at a Walmart.
This was the headline given to an Associated Press story at Mlive.com about an Ohio teen who later pleaded guilty to a school shooting in which three students were killed and two were wounded.
But when an unarmed father of two was killed by a police officer while entering a vehicle that contained his own children, the Los Angeles Times served up this claim from officials.
In the wake of the mass shooting in Santa Barbara, California, earlier this year, the Whittier Daily News offered a headline showing one man's disbelief that Elliot Rodger could have committed such a crime.
And according to the Omaha World-Herald, this is what you needed to know about Julius B. Vaughn, a 19-year-old gunned down in Omaha last year:
Kerri Ann Heffernan was charged in 2012 in a string of bank robberies and stores.This headline at Wicked Local wonders how she'd come so far from her days as a smart high school student.
Of 22-year-old black man Deon Sanders' killing in Ohio earlier this year, WKBN's headline said "gang member," and that apparently was enough.
The original Asians were Afrikans
The Andamanese are the various aboriginal inhabitants of the Andaman Islands, a district of India, located in the southeastern part of the Bay of Bengal. A 2009 genetic study of Indian populations demonstrated that these South Asian people unlike modern-day Indians, possess Ancestral South Indian lineage without admixture of any Ancestral North Indian genetic heritage. In other words, they have no Aryan or Caucasian blood. They are the forebears of the Dravidians; the pre-Aryan people of India. But where did they come from? What race do they belong to if they are not whites? They have to be either Asian or Afrikan.
When we look to geneticists to help us determine their racial identity, were are confounded. The data from the human genome study has thus far concluded: The analysis of nuclear DNA confirms the uniqueness of the Andamanese people. First, they show a very small genetic variation, which is indicative of populations that have experienced a population bottleneck and then developed in isolation for a long period. Second, an allele has been discovered among the Jarawas which is found nowhere else in the world. Third, they present no specific affinity to any other population in the world. What? These populations today are typically classed as Proto-Australoids. Of course, this terminology is racially misleading.
Based largely on genetic research, the remaining Andamanese were the first humans to colonize India, likely 30–65 thousand years before present (kybp). 60% of all Indians share the mtDNA haplogroup M, which is universal among Andamanese islander and might be a genetic legacy of the postulated first Indians. Their ancestors are thought to have arrived in the islands 60,000 years ago from coastal India. However, before their arrival in India, they migrated from Afrika. They were one of the many hunting cultures of Afrika, and like the Mbuti and San, they are often identified as "pygmies or pygmoid." Additionally, their women are the only people outside Afrika with steatopygia similar to the San. Scientists have given us misleading data, and they have left out a given--the monogentic theory or as it is also called, the Out-of-Afrika theory.
We get a true picture of the Andamese from anthropology. According to anthropologists, the Andamese are Negritos. The term Negrito refers to several ethnic groups who inhabit isolated parts of Southeast Asia, and who are the most genetically distant human population from Afrikans, but who are nevertheless Africoid. Thus, though located in Asia, these populations are surviving descendants of settlers from an early migration out of Afrika. So the truth is, the Andamese are Afrikan people. The term Negritos says a lot. But then again, pictures say even more--they are worth a thousand words. What race do you see?
P.S. By the way these people may have been part of the so-called Aquatic civilization. The also had the harpoon head used in fishing. However, their heads rather than being made of bone used wood.
In 2009, Tulane University researchers received a five-year $7,073,538 grant from the National Institute of Health to fund the continued development of detection kits for Lassa viral hemorrhagic fever. Since then researchers from Tulane University (TU) have been active in the exact areas in Afrika where this present Ebola (2014) outbreak is occurring. These researchers are working with other institutions, in particular the US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases USAMRIID, a well-known center for biowar research, located at Fort Detrick, Maryland. What exactly have they been doing? Exactly what diagnostic tests have they been performing on citizens of Sierra Leone?
Has Tulane researchers and their associates attempted any experimental treatments (e.g., injecting monoclonal antibodies) using citizens of the region? If so, what adverse events have occurred? We have reports that the government of Sierra Leone has recently told Tulane researchers to stop this testing?
The research program, occurring in Sierra Leone, the Republic of Guinea, and Liberia—said to be the epicenter of this most recent Ebola outbreak (2014)—has the announced purpose, among others, of detecting the future use of fever-viruses as bioweapons. In Sierra Leone, the Tulane group has been researching new diagnostic tests for hemorrhagic fevers. Dr. Robert Garry, Professor of Microbiology and Immunology, and Dr. James Robinson, Professor of Pediatrics, have been involved in the research of Lassa fever. Together the two have recently been able to create what are called human monoclonal antibodies. After isolating the B-cells from patients that have survived the disease, they have utilized molecular cloning methods to isolate the antibodies and reproduce them in the laboratory. These antibodies have been tested on guinea pigs at The University of Texas Medical Branch in Galveston and shown to help prevent them from dying of Lassa fever…
Lassa fever is part of the family of Viral Hemorrhaging Diseases (VHD), which includes Ebola, and others diseases. So, in other words TU has been testing using virus that are part of the Ebola family! According to Tulane University press, the researchers have also been investigating the use of monoclonal antibodies as a treatment for these fevers—but supposedly not on-site in Afrika,
It has been claimed that the testing is purely for defensive purposes. In 2007, TU announced it had developed new test to moves forward the detection of bioterrorism threats. “The initial round of clinical testing has been completed for the first diagnostic test kits that will aid in bioterrorism defense against a deadly viral disease. Tulane University researchers are collaborating in the project. But my question is this purely defensive research, or as we have seen in the past, is this research being covertly used to develop offensive bioweapons? Is this germ warfare or a case of testing gone wrong?
The other day my son showed me a Youtube video that portrayed Afrikans in the most, I repeat the most negative of light. ( I posted the video on my video blog page today.) He accompanied the the video with some statements about how the video alienated people from wanting to identify with being Afrikan. I said to him, it doesn't matter whether you identify with being Afrikan or not, our gene pool and phenotype has taken care of that. Also, people are going to identify you as being Afrikan whether you do, so there no way around it. Then I proceeded to comment on the video. I told him the video had nothing to do with Afrikan culture or traditions, that it was a bunch of young men disconnected from life itself: they were murdering, raping, and engaging in cannibalism. I said their behavior is not even human; that they were a bunch of violence automatons created by colonialism, neocolonialism, and our inability to restructure a world for ourselves, based on ourselves. There behavior in no way reflects on Afrikan people as a whole. In fact, the video reinforced the worst of Afrikan stereotypes by showing us some “savages,” especially by associating us with cannibalism, an evil that has been associated with us since the slave trade. Eradicating cannibalism was even a justification for our enslavement. I said if something is broken with our people, it is our job to fix it and not to shun it or let others “fix it.” I told him don't believe the hype—it's restoration time. And Pan-Afrikanism must be the concept that provides that unity; it must become the eternal theme of Afrikan existence; it must be instrumental in the development of global Black Power. Pan-Afrikan unity cannot simply be a territorial unity but ought to express the solidarity of Afrikan people based on our distinctive racial, cultural, linguistic and historical identity; it should offer means for Diasporan inclusiveness and participation; it needs to provide for the collective security and ultimate survival of Afrikan people. We have to champion it and the Afrikan worldview with a passion exceeding European cultural chauvinism, modern Zionism, and Asian ethnocentrism.
Pan Afrikanism and Afrikan Restoration are the most important themes in our lives, so we mustn't lose sight of that. Our mission is more important than Global Warming or any other crisis. Why? Because even if we save the present world from its various Western created crises, we will still be at the bottom facing genocide in that saved world. And Western man will still be creating more crises, so nothing will change. So, it is time to make objectives our only concerns. Period! We must keep our eyes on the prize.
Part II: Sugar and the Slave Trade
While Lustig and others are primarily concerned with sugar as a chemical element, as sucrose, and I have pointed out the especially harmful effects it is having on Afrika America, this is not the Afrikans' first encounter with sugar. And the first time we encountered it, it had perhaps an even more disastrous impact on us and our high cultures. I am talking about the sugar that did its dirty work not as sucrose but as ethanol or alcohol--in the form of rum--the designer drug or poison of the European Slave Trade, often misnomer the trans-Atlantic Slave Trade. That will be the topic of part two of this blog on sugar as the enemy.
Rum is a distilled alcoholic beverage made from sugarcane byproducts such as molasses, or directly from sugarcane juice, by a process of fermentation and distillation. The distillate, a clear liquid, is then usually aged in oak barrels. But even though rum begins as sugarcane there is no sugar in rum. Because of the processes of fermentation and distillation, you end up with ethanol alcohol, which is in fact a drug, and was the main items, along with guns that Europe exported to Afrika during the slave trade. The first distillation of sugarcane took place the slave plantations of the Caribbean in the 17th century. There, enslaved Afrikans first discovered molasses, a byproduct of the sugar refining process, which is fermented into alcohol. After fermentation distillation concentrated the alcohol and removed impurities, producing the first true rums. Barbados is the island credited with the development of the plantation system, and the first place to produce rum.
Rum's popularity and it economic value soon spread to the British colonies of North America. To support the demand for the drink there, the first rum distillery was set up in 1664 on present-day Staten Island, New York. Three years later Boston, Massachusetts had a distillery. Soon the manufacture of rum became early Colonial New England's largest and most prosperous industry. Due to the technical, metalworking and cooperage skills and abundant lumber, New England became a distilling center. Rhode Island rum was so valued that for a period of time, it was even accepted, like gold, as currency in Europe. Estimates of rum consumption in the American colonies before the American Revolutionary War had every man, woman, or child drinking an average of 3 imperial gallons of rum each year. Rum was consumed more readily than water. (Even to this day, there are a number of Western nations whose alcoholic consumption surpasses their water consumption, France being one of them, Ireland perhaps another.)
In the slave trade, rum was also used as a medium of exchange. For example, the slave Venture Smith, whose history was later published, had been purchased in Africa for four gallons of rum plus a piece of calico.
This demand for rum, along with the increasing demand for sugar in Europe during the 17th and 18th centuries, created a greater demand for slaves to work the Caribbean sugar plantations. As a result, a triangular trade was established between Africa, the New World, which consisted of the various European colonies, and Europe. The triangular trade operated from the late 16th to early 19th centuries, carrying enslaved Afrikans, cash crops, and manufactured goods between West Africa, Caribbean or American colonies and the European colonial powers, with the northern colonies of British North America, especially New England, sometimes taking over the role of Europe. As the above diagram, we will use the New England colonies as the first leg. This leg of the trade consisted of sugar, cotton, and tobacco being exported to Europe where it was manufactured producing rum, textile, and various chewing and smoking-tobacco products, the likes of snuff, cigarettes, cigars, etc. The leg emanating from Europe and terminating in Afrika exported textiles, rum, and firearms. The textiles helped to undermine and destroy Afrika's textile industries; the rum, which was over-proof, served two purposes; it was us for ritual libations, and highly sought after because of its high alcohol content which was considered more efficacious when dealing with the spiritual world. Rum also helped to foment slave raids, as inebriated young warriors attacked neighboring societies, often a society they had historical enmity with. The forming of alliances with Western nations in order to acquired the gun, a new advanced weapon, would be the beginning of the end for a number of Afrikan kingdoms. The gun, which was a sort of carrot, enticed Afrikan kingdoms into a relationship with Europeans that only served to exacerbate the political relationships between Afrikan societies.
The European, motivated by mercantilism, a materialist philosophy driven by greed, and an individualistic desired to enrich oneself and one's nation by acquiring gold, slaves, and colonies. The Afrika living according to another set of values, another worldview, became entangled in this international trade network, and consequently was devatated by it, becoming along with the native American, another victim, another casualty. For all his assistance, the European wanted war captives in return, and on a one-to-one ratio-one gun, one captive. The gun, along with its partner in crime, rum, had a devastating impact on Afrikan political dynamics. The last leg of the triangular trade saw Afrikan war captives shipped across the Atlantic Ocean in overcrowded European and American made vessels. This journey across the Atlantic was the infamous "Middle Passage," where many Afrikans died of disease in the crowded holds of the slave ships. Once the ship reached the New World, enslaved survivors were sold in the Caribbean or the American colonies. In the colonies the use of enslaved Afrikan was fundamental to growing colonial cash crops, which were exported to Europe. But the Afrikans were also the laborers that built the physical infrastructure of the colonies as well. The ships were then prepared to get them thoroughly cleaned, drained, and loaded with export goods as this cycle would simply repeat itself. And again, the ships loaded with cargoes of sugar, rum, molasses, and other goods.
So sugar has been our enemy for some time now.