Ethiopianism had flowered into Pan Afrikanism, but in Jamaica, aspects of it, gave birth to Black Supremacist thought.  The Black Supremacist ideal, evident in the Piby and The Royal Parchment, came to fruition in The Ethiopian Salvation Society under the leadership of Howell. Today, however, the Black Supremacist and anti-white theology of early Rastafari is absent. What remain of Howell’s original principles are the divinity of Selassie I, repatriation, and the 4th principle, i.e., his disposition toward the Jamaican government that formed the basis of the Zion-Babylon paradigm. We agree with Lee that changes in theology and orientation took place post-Pinnacle, and that this was only possible once Howell’s position and power in the movement diminished, and his followers “scattered.” This post-Pinnacle era the author has identified as a “Rastafarian Diaspora,” and it was during this period that contemporary Rastafari emerged. This “Rasta” developed in the ghettoes of Kingston, the movement’s new epicenter, and not the old epicenter, Pinnacle.
As stated earlier, the Jamaican government, persecuted (and prosecuted) Howell more than any other person in Jamaican history. All of this was taking its toll. After the fall of Pinnacle, Howell’s mental health deteriorated and he was committed in 1961. The destruction of Pinnacle and the decline of Howell’s power would have six consequences for the post-Pinnacle movement/Diaspora. First, and the most obvious, the destruction of Pinnacle shattered Rastafari’s economic foundation. Second, there was a change in nomenclature, which was emblematic of impending changes. Howell’s group was the first to have been identified with the emperor’s pre-coronation name—and in the same way that Bedward’s and Garvey’s followers were called Bedwardites and Garveyites, respectively—they were called “Rastafarites.” However, now in the streets of Kingston “Rastafarians” were what followers were now being called. During this period, the press would also for the first time use the term “Rastafarianism,” which is an abomination to Rastafari.
Third, in the late 1950s and 1960s the movement splintered once it lost the unifying influence Howell provided. In truth, a certain amount of diversity had always existed. For example, Dunkley and Hibbert had never settled in Pinnacle; they worked with the Ethiopian World Federation (EWF), which Haile Selassie’s cousin, Malaku Bayen, established in 1937. The EWF was important because it gave a voice to Rastafari during their formative years. Dunkley and Hibbert were both foundational members of EWF local #17. Howell had even written for its newspaper, The Voice of Ethiopia, until he established The Ethiopian Salvation Society later that year. Additionally, another early Rastafarite leader, Joseph Meyer, who worked with the AACC, had established his King of Kings Organization in Denham Town in 1947. Therefore, although Pinnacle had been the epicenter where the vast majority of Rastafari lived, there had always been small Rastafari organizations that existed in Kingston and elsewhere. Yet, the post-Pinnacle period saw the proliferation of groups in the shantytowns, where different encampments became “Pinnacles” in their own right. The Rastafarian Convention of 1958 organized by Prince Emmanuel marked the official end of Howell’s leadership. (Lee believes that they did not even invite Howell to the gathering.) Without a single leader, many leaders developed, and with this new leadership came new organizations with different “philosophies.” Indicative of the splintering during this period, was the development of the different “mansions” of Rastafari.
A fourth consequence that arose was an increased millenarianism that caused followers to rely more heavily on the Bible. We must remember that although Ethiopianism was quintessential to the movement, and it was predicated on the Bible, at Pinnacle the Rastafarites used The Promise Key and Howell’s six tenets in addition to the Bible; The Promise Key gave them organizational structure, a theology and an approach to healing; it added additional moral codes to biblical ones, and his six tenets rooted Rastafari in Black Supremacy, supported the Zion-Babylon dichotomy, had repatriation as a desired goal, and most importantly preached the divinity of HIM Haile Selassie I. Most of the above has little to do with the Bible but all to do with Rastafari. Earlier, Dunkley had searched the Bible and highlighted all the parts that related to Haile Selassie as God, and presumably, Howell used these excerpts at Pinnacle. In other words, Howell was an Ethiopianist who used the Bible selectively. Moreover, according to Howell’s son Blade, his father rarely read the Bible.
Having always been the most salient theme in Rastafari’s theology, it was Ethiopianism that ironically facilitated the use of the Bible to substantiate their livity, particularly after The Promise Key fell into disuse (copies of The Promise Key were burned at Pinnacle), and several of Howell’s tenets were spurned. As newer and younger members, who grew up in Kingston’s ghettoes, replaced the older Pinnacle Rastafarites, their knowledge of the recent past was limited. These Rastafarians, having not grown up in Pinnacle, were to a certain extent disconnected from its history. With the Bible becoming the movement’s only guidebook, it naturally was used to explain their livity; even though much of the livity had been developed through practice at Pinnacle, where it had synergized with Indian spiritual ideas and practices. And just like Ethiopianism was predicated on biblical verses, Rastafari now fittingly used biblical verses to support their livity. This was not necessarily a conspiracy against Indian influences by more Afrikan-centered Rastafarians, as Lee implies, but if anything, it was a testament to the centrality of Ethiopianism to Rastafari. However, it can be partly attributed to an ahistoricism, often characteristic of Afrikan people—newer members simply did not know the history. One might argue that the Bible was always the source of Rastafari livity. This would be inaccurate, however, and putting the proverbial cart before the horse. The rationale for the wearing of locks provides an excellent example. The question can be asked, “Where was the Nazirite law when Rastafari used to cut his hair?” It was inconsequential because no one was wearing locks yet. Its application only became important after the appearance of locks, not before, when no rationale was needed. Thus, the Bible was used to justify the practice but was not the source of it. If the Bible had always been the source then Rastafari would have had locks from the beginning. This example can be applied to vegetarianism, the sacramental use of ganga, and other aspects of the livity. Their justification was sought and found in the Bible after the fact.
Garvey’s readmittance into Rastafari “theology,” was another consequence of the post-Pinnacle Diaspora. It would be during this period that Rastafari began to reembrace Garvey as a prophet, casting him in the role of John the Baptist. It fit in perfectly with their new dependency on the Bible. In addition, it was now that his utterance, “Look to Africa where a black king shall be crowned, for the day of deliverance is at hand," regained it significance as heralding their expected Messiah. In the 1930s, Howell and Garvey’s relationship had become contentious, and when Howell edited and condensed The Royal Parchment, coming up with his text, he intentionally omitted all references to Garvey and the UNIA. To many Rastafarites, Garvey’s characterization of them as a dangerous cult made him anathema. But with the death of Garvey, the waning influence of Howell, and the attraction of younger followers, most of whom were unaware a rift ever existed, the earlier tensions between the Rastafarites and Garveyites dissipated. Besides, Garvey was irrepressible; he was a great man, a man with a legacy; a man considered a prophet by earlier Jamaican religious figures, such as Bedward and Pettersburgh, as well as by Rogers and the Hamatic Church (AACC).
Sixth, with the fall of Pinnacle there developed an immediate desire for repatriation to Ethiopia, and a number of organizations developed with this sole purpose. Rastafari’s Ethiopianism posited that Afrikan people were the Israelites and Ethiopia was the new Zion. They believed that God’s chosen people were still exiled, via slavery in Babylon, where they suffered continual oppression. Pinnacle had served as their “Promised Land” and while it existed there was no timetable for repatriation. Blade Howell said that although his father believed in repatriation—when it was supposed to transpire remained undecided. However, with Pinnacle, their temporary “Zion” destroyed, Rastafari looked to Ethiopia with renewed vigor and repatriation became a pressing issue.
This article has documented that Rastafari embodies a tripartite heritage, which consists of Ethiopianism, Garveyism, as well as ritual and cultural practices inherited from the Indians. Unmistakably the Rastafari worldview or theology has changed since the early days. No longer a Black Supremacist anti-white movement centered in Jamaica, today it is a livity followed by people of different nations and races. However, the author’s point in this article was to demonstrate that Ethiopianism is at the heart of Rastafari, more so that Garveyism, and the Indian influences that have contributed to Rastafari. It is the worshipping of a Black God, making Afrikan people God’s chosen people, and perceiving an Afrika country as the most sacred place on earth that makes Rastafari Rastafari. This is not to say that the wearing of locks, vegetarianism, and the smoking of sacramental ganga are not important. They are, but are not foundational. For example, the wearing of locks is not a universal practice as there are “dread-less Rastas;” Vegetarianism is not universal as there are pescatarians, and meat-eating Rastafari; finally, “ganga smoking does not a Rasta make,” and not all Rastafari smoke!!! All Rastafari embrace Ethiopianism, however. In concluding, the author would like to add a possible fourth factor, one not as instrumental as the aforementioned, but nonetheless, has been a factor in helping to shape today’s Rastafari: The Black Power movement.
The Jamaican Labour Party government of Hugh Shearer had banned Black Power literature such as The Autobiography of Malcolm X, and the works of Eldridge Cleaver and Stokely Carmichael (Kwame Toure). However, Afrikan Guyanese scholar Walter Rodney, when appointed as a lecturer at his alma mater the University of the West Indies (UWI at Mona) in 1968, he brought the movement to Jamaica. Rodney was highly critical of the Caribbean middle class for its role in the post-independence Caribbean, and was a strong critic of capitalism, arguing for a socialist paradigm. The Shearer government, which had already placed Rodney under surveillance for his engagement with Rastafarians and other disenfranchised communities, declared Rodney persona non-grata and a threat to national security, and banned him from reentry into Jamaica, after he had attended a Black writers’ conference in Montreal, Canada. After a student protest, led by now Prime Minister of St. Vincent and the Grenadines, the Honorable Ralph Gonsalves, the “Rodney Riots” erupted and consequently spread off campus to the capital Kingston. These riots, which started on October 16, 1968, triggered an increase in political awareness across the Caribbean. In Jamaica, radical groups and publications such as Abeng began to appear, and the opposition People’s National Party gained support, winning the 1972 election, which elected as Prime Minister, Michael Manley, who had expressed support for Black Power. However, one of the most politicized groups in Jamaica because of the Rodney Riots was Rastafarians. These politicized Rastafarians, especially the musicians, who were additionally inspired by the socially conscious music coming from America, gave rise to Roots Reggae. Moreover, Roots Reggae has been the ambassador of Rastafari, and has helped to spread its livity worldwide.
 America spawned its own Black Supremacist thought but rather than it being based on Ethiopianism, it used Islam inspiration. We are here talking about the Moorish Science Movement and the Nation of Islam.
70 Lee, p. 217.
71 Lee, p. 206.
72 Blade Howell also tell us that he and his brother often recited prayers from The Promise Key. Can we take this to have been the norm at Pinnacle, if so it would further indicate its importance as a spiritual guide for Rastafari.
73 Lee, p. 101.
74 Rodney’s encounters with the Rastafarians were published in a pamphlet entitled Grounding with My Brothers, which became an inspiration for the Caribbean Black Power Movement.